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1: Introduction to Human Aging - Biology

1: Introduction to Human Aging - Biology


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1: Introduction to Human Aging

Introduction

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

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    • Authors: J. Gordon Betts, Kelly A. Young, James A. Wise, Eddie Johnson, Brandon Poe, Dean H. Kruse, Oksana Korol, Jody E. Johnson, Mark Womble, Peter DeSaix
    • Publisher/website: OpenStax
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    Biology of Aging

    Aging is accompanied by gradual changes in most body systems. Research on the biology of aging focuses on understanding the cellular and molecular processes underlying these changes as well as those accompanying the onset of age-related diseases. As scientists learn more about these processes, experiments can be designed to better understand when and how pathological changes begin, providing important clues toward developing interventions to prevent or treat disease. A great deal has been learned about structural and functional changes that occur in different body systems, and progress is ongoing. Research has expanded our knowledge, too, of the biologic factors associated with extended longevity in humans and animal models. This section of the NIA's narrative discusses some recent advances in the biology of aging, on cloning and transplantation and on lifespan itself. Selected future research directions are described as well, including continuing efforts to find biologic interventions to promote healthy aging, to understand the genetic basis of aging, and to explore the potential of adult stem cells and cell replacement for reducing disease and improving function.

    Cloning and Transplantation Strategies

    There is enormous interest in the potential uses of cloning, gene therapy, and adult stem cell transplantation, as well as tissue transplantation, to combat diseases of aging. Cloning cells or animals could lead to new advances in medicine and agriculture, and each of these new techniques could lead to strategies to replace tissues and organs lost through disease.

    Cloning Resets the Telomere Clock in Cattle. An important question in cloning research is whether cloned cells or organisms created from old or senescent cells will be biologically older than their normal counterparts. Telomeres are highly repetitive DNA sequences located at the end of chromosomes, and telomere length is associated with cell age. As cells divide, telomere length gets progressively shorter until eventually, proliferation stops entirely. Such cells, which have ceased dividing, are called senescent. In a recent study, nuclei from senescent bovine fibroblasts were transferred into egg cells from which the nucleus had been removed. The nuclei were reactivated and the egg cells were implanted into cows. Healthy calves were born, and were found to have telomere lengths that are more typical of young than old animals. Thus, telomere length was reset during gestation. Whether this will affect the lifespan of the cloned calves will not be known for many years however it does appear from these data that cloned offspring in some, if not all, species will not be biologically older than normal offspring. Such information will be useful in developing cell replacement intervention strategies to restore cells damaged or lost through disease.

    Cell Transplantation and Aging. An alternative to tissue or organ transplantation that appears to have great potential is formation of functional tissue from cell transplants. Recent research has shown that isolated cow or human adrenal gland cells inserted into immunodeficient mice formed functional adrenal tissue that resembles normal adrenal gland. This approach may potentially be used for any organ, either to study its functional regeneration in a living organism with age or to therapeutically regenerate lost function as in a case, for example, when defective genes might be replaced in cells isolated from a patient and then placed back into the same patient for tissue regeneration. This technique can also reduce the need for immunosuppressive therapies and offers an alternative to adult stem cell therapies.

    Understanding and Extending the Lifespan

    In order to understand the aging process, it is important to identify those factors that affect the overall lifespan of an organism. In mammals, there is a progressive physiologic decline with aging that is often accompanied by disease and disability. Understanding the responsible physiological mechanisms and, further, identifying ways to slow down age-related changes are important. Beyond any gains in lifespan, studies in this area are aimed more importantly at developing interventions to keep older people healthy and free of disease and/or disability as long as possible. Experiments in a number of animal models are providing valuable insights.

    Extension of Average Lifespan of Nematodes by Pharmacological Intervention. It is widely accepted that oxidative stress is a factor in aging. To date, however, it has not been demonstrated convincingly that natural antioxidants such as vitamins C and E or ß-carotene extend lifespan in model experiments with mice, fruit flies, or nematodes (a kind of worm). Varied results have been obtained in genetically altered fruit flies over-expressing either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or SOD and catalase, enzymes that reduce oxidative damage. Now, an artificial compound, EUK-134, which mimics both SOD and catalase activity, has been shown to increase the average lifespan of nematodes by about 50%. EUK-134 also reversed premature aging in a nematode strain subject to elevated oxidative damage. These results strongly suggest that oxidative stress is a major factor in rate of aging in the nematode, and that this rate can be slowed by pharmacological intervention. It may be that similar compounds could lessen oxidative stress in humans and delay or reduce age-related pathology.

    Genetically Mimicking Caloric Restriction (CR) Significantly Extends Yeast Lifespan. CR has been shown to significantly extend lifespan in a variety of organisms. In organisms studied to date (yeast, nematodes, fruit flies, mice and rats), CR increased both mean and maximum lifespan, as well as significantly reducing signs of disease. In all species examined, the extended longevity and health of the animals was accompanied by changes in the regulation of energy metabolism. Recent research has determined that genetic manipulation of glucose availability, metabolism, and signaling pathways can mimic the longevity-extending effects of CR in the yeast model. This discovery makes the yeast model of aging and longevity a powerful tool for uncovering the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for increased longevity and health span, with a view to developing effective interventions.

    CR Increases Neurotrophic Factor Production in the Brain and Protects Neurons. Beyond extending lifespan, CR also reduces development of age-related cancers, immune and neuroendocrine alterations, and motor dysfunction in rodents. Recent animal model studies of neurodegenerative disorders provide the first evidence that CR can also increase resistance of neurons to age-related and disease-specific stresses. One possible mechanism is that the mild metabolic stress associated with CR induces cells to produce proteins that increase cellular resistance to disease processes. Indeed, CR increases production of one such protein, a neuronal survival factor, BDNF. BDNF signaling in turn plays a central role in the neuroprotective effect of CR. This work suggests that CR may be an effective approach for reducing neuronal damage and neurodegenerative disorders in aging, providing insight into the design of approaches that might mimic CR's beneficial consequences.

    Use of Gene Expression Microarrays in Aging Research. Aging is normally accompanied by changes in expression, or activity, of a large number of genes, but it is not clear which of these changes are critical in the aging process. Gene expression microarrays, which allow profiling the activity of many thousands of genes at once, provide an opportunity to obtain a more complete picture of what these changes are, and to design tests of whether these changes are causally associated with aging. In three recent studies, investigators looked at differences in gene expression patterns in young and old mouse skeletal muscle, liver, and brain tissue and also made several observations on changes brought about by caloric restriction. Though the data analyses are complex, some initial observations are: (1) aging results in lower levels of activity of metabolic and biosynthetic genes (2) aging is accompanied by patterns of gene expression that are indicative of stress responses, including inflammatory and oxidative stress (3) many, but not all, age-related changes in gene expression in mouse liver and skeletal muscle are slowed by caloric restriction and (4) caloric restriction appears to increase expression of genes for repairing and/or preventing damage to cellular macromolecules. Microarray technology is proving to be an efficient approach to answering longstanding important questions about molecular mechanisms of aging and how these may be manipulated, for example, by calorie restriction. Profiling changes in gene activity may eventually provide useful biomarkers of the aging process itself, markers that might be important in assessing the effectiveness of strategies to retard aging-related processes.

    Selected Future Research Directions in the Biology of Aging

    Biological Interventions To Promote Healthy Aging. Counteracting the effects of aging by hormonal and dietary supplements, including estrogen, testosterone, human growth hormone, melatonin, and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), is an area of active study. There are concerns that many middle-aged and older people may be taking such agents, before safety and efficacy of these substances for so-called "anti-aging" purposes have been adequatelyassessed. Although levels of some hormones may decline with age, maintaining levels that are normal at younger ages may not be needed, or even desirable, as a person grows older. Even if effective, supplementation may entail risks. More research is needed to determine how the biologic action of these hormones changes in older people and to assess whether replacement of these hormones will improve health.

    CR is another biological intervention that may promote healthy aging. Some of CR's effects on longevity have been linked to changes in specific metabolic pathways. Studies are now planned to define the role of energy metabolism and metabolic regulation in mammalian aging, longevity and age-related disease, and uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may be regulating aging processes, including those affected by CR. Most recently, researchers have identified changes in physiologic function in calorically restricted rhesus monkeys that suggest delays in aging-related decline. At this point, the effects of voluntary CR on lifespan and development of age-related diseases in humans are unknown. Preliminary human intervention studies are being designed to determine whether CR and physical activity differ in their long-term effects on obesity, body composition, prevention and susceptibility to age-related diseases.

    Understanding the Genetic Basis of Aging, Longevity, Disease, and Behavior. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors are major determinants of aging and longevity in many species, including humans. NIA studies have begun to reveal the biologic factors associated with extended longevity in humans and animal models, implicating numerous genes in normal aging processes, age-related pathologies and diseases, and longevity. Some of these genes are associated with dramatic extension of lifespan. Using advanced technology, the NIA plans to accelerate its efforts to discover additional age- and longevity-related genes and to characterize their biological function. A new research initiative will extend studies of longevity-associated genes, changes in gene expression patterns, and the genetic epidemiology of human longevity. The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop interventions to reduce or delay age-related degenerative processes in humans. In addition, revolutionary advances in the fields of quantitative and molecular genetics hold great promise in the search for the genetic determinants of complex behaviors. Studies in humans can help identify the relative contributions of environment and heredity to dementia, cognitive abilities, physical functioning, well being, and social aging. New techniques can track the developmental course of genetic contributions to behavior, identify genetic heterogeneity, and explore genetic links between the normal and abnormal. Basic research will explore error accumulation in DNA with age and how the cell repairs such damage.

    Exploring the Potential of Adult Stem Cells and Cell Replacement in Aging. Stem cells in adult human tissues retain the capacity for self-renewal and the potential to become many of the cell types in the human body. This capacity holds enormous potential for cell replacement or tissue repair therapy in many degenerative diseases of aging, including AD, PD, stroke, myocardial infarction, musculoskeletal disorders, immune system dysfunction, and diabetes. Emerging research findings suggest that it may be possible to harness the multipotential nature of adult stem cells to maintain tissue structure and function in aging. Much remains to be learned, however, about the basic biology of stem cells in animal models before effective cell therapy can be realized. The NIA is developing an research initiative on changes in stem cells and their environment with aging in animal models and in human nonfetal tissues. This research initiative will complement as well as encourage collaboration with other components of NIH.


    2 - The biology of ageing

    This chapter introduces key biological concepts of ageing. First, it defines ageing and presents the main features of human ageing, followed by a consideration of evolutionary models of ageing. Causes of variation in ageing (genetic and dietary) are reviewed, before examining biological theories of the causes of ageing.

    Thanks to technological progress in different areas, including biomedical breakthroughs in preventing and treating infectious diseases, longevity has been increasing dramatically for decades. The life expectancy at birth in the UK for boys and girls rose, respectively, from 45 and 49 years in 1901 to 75 and 80 in 1999 with similar figures reported for other industrialized nations (see Chapter 1 for further discussion). A direct consequence is a steady increase in the proportion of people living to an age where their health and well-being are restricted by ageing. By the year 2050, it is estimated that the percentage of people in the UK over the age of 65 will rise to over 25 per cent, compared to 14 per cent in 2004 (Smith, 2004).

    The greying of the population, discussed elsewhere (see Chapter 1), implies major medical and societal changes. Although ageing is no longer considered by health professionals as a direct cause of death (Hayflick, 1994), the major killers in industrialized nations are now age-related diseases like cancer, diseases of the heart and neurodegenerative diseases.


    Key Features

    • Covers the key areas in biological gerontology research in one volume, with an 80% update from the previous edition
    • Edited by Matt Kaeberlein and George Martin, highly respected voices and researchers within the biology of aging discipline
    • Assists basic researchers in keeping abreast of research and clinical findings outside their subdiscipline
    • Presents information that will help medical, behavioral, and social gerontologists in understanding what basic scientists and clinicians are discovering
    • New chapters on genetics, evolutionary biology, bone aging, and epigenetic control
    • Provides a close examination of the diverse research being conducted today in the study of the biology of aging, detailing recent breakthroughs and potential new directions

    BIO 103 - Introduction to Human Biology

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    Course Description:
    This core curriculum course will concentrate on the quantitative aspects of human biology, including biochemistry, cell biology, molecular physiology and genetics. Emphasis will be placed on molecular mechanisms of cellular processes - such as signal transduction, differential gene expression or self-recognition - that underlie and control pivotal physiological functions of the human organism. Contested topics of modern biology will be introduced and exmined using scientific method.

    Course Learning objectives:
    Upon successful completion of the course, students should achieve a sound understanding of core concepts of biology and knowledge about the role of various biological macromolecules in the human body, how different types of cells are integrated into multicellular systems, and how organs and organisms develop and function. They will also learn how to apply the scientific method to analysis of various phenomena.

    Textbooks and On-Line Materials:

    Human Biology 7th Edition by D.D. Chiras, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2012 ISBN: 9780763783457 ISBN-13: 9780763783457
    Textbook companion website: http://biology.jbpub.com/chiras/7e/

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    EN-US
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    Semester Schedule:
    The schedule is subject to change according to the need of the class and the instructor, as determined by the instructor.
    1. September 01 Introduction
    2. September 03 Chapter 1. Course Introductoin Llife in balance
    3. September 08 Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life
    4. September 10 Chapter 3 The Life of the Cell
    5. September 15 Chapter 4. Principles of Structure and Function
    6. September 17 Chapter 5. Nutrition and Digestion
    7. September 22 Chapter 5. Nutrition and Digestion (continued)
    8. September 24 Chapter 6. The Circulatory System
    9. September 29 Chapter 7. The Blood
    10. October 01 Chapter 8. The Vital Exchange: Respiration
    11. October 06 Chapter 9. The Urinary System
    12. October 8 Midterm Examination I
    13. October 11 – October 21 Eid Al Adha holidays
    14. October 22 Chapter 10. The Nervous System
    15. October 27 Chapter 11. The Senses
    16. October 29 Chapter 12. The Skeleton and Muscles
    17. November 3 Chapter 13. The Endocrine System
    18. November 5 Chapter 14. The Immune System
    19. November 10 Chapter 15. Human Infectious Diseases
    20. November 12 Chapter 16. Chromosomes, Cell Division, & the Cell Cycle
    21. November 17 Chapter 17. Principles of Human Heredity
    22. November 19 Chapter 17. Principles of Human Heredity, continued
    23. November 24 Midterm Examination II
    24. November 26 Chapter 18. How Genes Are Controlled
    25. December 1 Chapter 19. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
    26. December 3 Chapter 20. Cancer
    27. December 8 Chapter 20. Cancer (continued)
    28. December 10 Chapter 21. Human Reproduction
    29. December 15 Chapter 22. Human Development and Aging
    30. December 17 Chapter 23. Evolution
    31. December 22 Chapter 24. Ecology and the Environment
    32. December 24 Midterm Examination III


    Sections

    Advanced Biosciences Program

    Required Courses

    Electives

    • Biochemistry
    • The Biology of Human Cancer
    • Cell Biology
    • Developmental Biology
    • Endocrinology
    • Genetics
    • Genomic Medicine
    • Hematology
    • Human Nutrition
    • Immunology
    • Introduction to Biostatistics
    • Introduction to Human Physiology
    • Introduction to Human Physiology
    • Introduction to Parasitology
    • Medical Microbiology
    • Biochemistry
    • Mammalian Systemic Physiology
    • Neuroscience
    • Physiology of the Cardiac and Respiratory Systems
    • Molecular Cell Biology
    • Pharmacology
    • Principles of Infectious Diseases and Emerging Infectious Diseases
    • Principles of Molecular Biology
    • Quantitative Analysis: Applications in Clinical Chemistry
    • Stem Cell Biology, Research and Discovery
    • Virology
    • Principles of Toxicology
    • Microbiology Laboratory
    • Virtual Hematology Laboratory
    • Pathophysiology
    • Exercise Physiology
    • Biology of Aging
    • CRISPR Genome Editing: From Biology to Technology

    Course of Related Interest

    Post-Baccalaureate Accelerated Health Sciences Program

    Term 1 Required Courses

    Term 2 Required Courses

    Electives

    Post-Baccalaureate Health Professions Program

    Required Courses

    Basic Biology Electives

    Upper-Division Biology Courses

    • Biochemistry
    • Human Physiology Laboratory
    • Mammalian Systemic Physiology
    • General Human Anatomy
    • Human Anatomy Laboratory
    • Medical Microbiology
    • Microbiology Laboratory
    • Introduction to Biostatistics
    • Biology of Aging
    • The Biology of Human Cancer
    • Cell Biology
    • Current Topics in the Biosciences
    • Developmental Biology
    • Endocrinology
    • Exercise Physiology
    • Genetics
    • Genomic Medicine
    • Hematology
    • Virtual Hematology Laboratory
    • Human Nutrition
    • Immunology
    • Neuroscience
    • Physiology of the Cardiac and Respiratory Systems
    • Principles of Molecular Biology
    • Molecular Cell Biology
    • Introduction to Parasitology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Pharmacology
    • Principles of Infectious Diseases and Emerging Infectious Diseases
    • Stem Cell Biology, Research and Discovery
    • Principles of Toxicology
    • Virology
    • CRISPR Genome Editing: From Biology to Technology

    Chemistry Electives

    Physics Electives

    Math Electives

    Other Electives

    Test Preparation Courses


    The Cycle of Growth and Replication

    The growth and replication of cells is often described as a cyclic process with two main phases: interphase , when the cell grows and replicates DNA in preparation for cell division, and mitosis , during which the actual division of the cell into two daughter cells occurs. The events occurring in this cyclic process are summarized in the diagram on the right in which interphase events are shown with blue arrows and mitosis is shown in brown. Note that cells may also exit the cycle and enter a G0 phase either temporarily or more or less permanently. In cells that are actively growing and dividing, such as those in an embryo, the cycle is completed frequently as cells divide over and over as the embryo grows and develops. In adults the need for growth and development has passed, and most cells remain in the G0 phase during which they perform their specialized functions, but they no longer replicate (e.g., nerve and muscle cells). Nevertheless, even in fully developed adults certain progenitor cells retain the ability to replicate and give rise to new daughter cells to replace cells that are damaged or lost due to wear and tear. For example, Clara cells in the epithelium of the respiratory tract have the capacity to replicate to produce two daughter cells - one that will be a new Clara cell and one that will differentiate into a replacement epithelial cell. Similarly, hematopoetic stem cells in bone marrow have the ability to replicate to give rise to progenitor cells that can differentiate into the various cellular elements of blood.

    Regulation of the cell cycle is of critical importance to the aging process. Replication should only occur when there is a need for growth and development (in embryos and the young) or when there is a need to replace damaged or lost cells. Thus, the cycle is influenced by growth factors and by proto-oncogenes that favor replication and by anti-oncogenes that produce proteins that inhibit replication. These various factors interact to regulate the cell cycle in cells that have retained the capacity to divide. In addition, there are cellular processes that constitute checkpoints that prevent the cell cycle from proceeding if errors have occurred. The first checkpoint occurs during the G1 phase and provides an opportunity for cellular that processes to repair damaged DNA before the cell enters the S phase when replication occurs. This prevents the daughter cells from inheriting damaged DNA, which would result in mutations. There are also other checkpoints in S and G2 phases that check for damaged DNA and failure of DNA replication. The final cell cycle checkpoint occurs at the end of mitosis and checks for any chromosomes that have been misaligned. The many factors that regulate the cell cycle play an important rol in the aging process, because as cells age their capacity to replicate diminishes to the point that they are no longer able to divide. As this occurs, the ability to replace damaged or lost cells dwindles and ultimately results in declines in tissue strength and cellular and organ function that are characteristic of aging.


    Educating the Next Generation of Multidisciplinary Scientists of Aging

    A key feature of the Institute on Aging is training up and coming researchers to approach aging as an integrative challenge. Much of this is occurring through graduate and postdoctoral training via MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a National Institute on Aging funded study that examines the interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors as people age from early adulthood through later life. As shown in the figure, over 200 graduate degrees have been completed using MIDUS data. Among the more than 1,400 publications from the study, many have been generated by junior scientists.

    In 2018, we also published The Oxford Handbook of Integrative Health Science to provide an overview of scientific findings emerging from the MIDUS study. Of the 35 chapters included, 75% were first-authored by junior scientists (graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, assistant professors). Additionally, the Institute on Aging hosts annual meetings and workshops that bring scholars together to learn of cutting-edge advances from MIDUS as well as learn about new domains of data and methods of data analysis.


    1: Introduction to Human Aging - Biology

    Why is this course valuable? Knowledge and understanding of human aging is important because aging affects social, psychological, economic, and other aspects of each person and the individuals with whom they interact. This importance is growing as aging affects society in more intense, complex and diverse ways. The growth in importance of aging stems from the increasing number of aging individuals now and well into the 21st century. Therefore, having knowledge and understanding of aging can be valuable personally and professionally now and far into the future.

    This course provides opportunities to learn about several aspects of biological aging. They include what it is how it happens what effects it has on the structure and operations of the human body how it affects social, psychological and other aspects of life how it is related to diseases and what can or cannot be done about it.

    Instructor : Dr. Augustine G. DiGiovanna, Professor of Biology

    Prerequisites : Biology 101 or both Biology 215 and Biology 216 (General Biology or Human Anatomy and Physiology)

    Class meetings : Lecture - DH144 on TR, 12:30-1:45am

    Text : Human Aging: Biological Perspectives by A. G. DiGiovanna, McGraw-Hill, Inc. (2000)

    Course Credit : The three credits for Biol 219 apply toward Gen. Ed. Group IIIB, the minor in Biology, the minor in Gerontology, and the 120 credit graduation requirement.

    Course Objectives : This course should enable students to:

    1. Demonstrate a knowledge of demographic information pertaining to aging and to the elderly in the United States and an understanding of the significance of these demographics.
    2. Name and describe factors that are believed to cause or influence the process of aging.
    3. List and describe theories of aging and explain the relationships among them.
    4. Describe, compare, and evaluate methods used to study aging.
    5. Define and describe the concept of homeostasis and explain its importance and how it is maintained.
    6. Describe the normal structure, functioning, and contributions to healthy survival of each body system in young adults.
    7. Describe age changes in each body system and the interactions among these systems in older adults.
    8. Describe certain abnormal changes both in body systems and the interactions among these systems in older adults.
    9. Describe interactions among biological, psychological, social, and economic factors in older adults.
    10. Relate and use this knowledge their personal and professional lives.

    These are general objectives, and most of them are taken from the preface for the text. Specific objectives for each section of the course will be presented during the course. It is expected that students will find the information needed to carry out most of the objectives by reading the text and taking notes from it. Class time will be used to answer questions, and to supplement and amplify the text with lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and video programs. Schedule: The course schedule is included in the separate schedule sheet.

    Attendance : Attendance at classes is important because the educational experiences encountered in class cannot be obtained at any other place or time. Therefore, students are expected to attend all classes. Final grades will be adjusted downward based on the number of absences. No adjustment will be made for the first two absences, one/half point will be deducted for the third, 1.5 points will be deducted for four absences, and an additional two points will be deducted for each additional absence up to a total possible deduction of twenty points. In addition, students are responsible for all information, materials, assignments, and announcements presented in class. Students are required to have and use a campus Group Wise E-mail account for this course.

    Examinations : Examinations will be based primarily on specific objectives derived from material in the text and augmented by lectures, other class activities, and other assignments. Exams will not be cumulative except for material that is repeated in objectives, text readings, lectures, or assignments. The point value for each exam will be proportional to the amount of material required for the exam.

    Absence from an exam is a serious matter and could result in an exam grade of zero. Make-up exams will be given for serious reasons as judged by the instructor. Notifications and requests should be made before or on the day of the exam. The instructor should be contacted in person, by note, or by messenger at DH114 or through the departmental secretary (DX302), by phone (546-3488, 546-3490, 555-5555 ), or by E-mail ([email protected]). Grades of zero will be given for exams that are not taken or are not made up.

    Non-Text Reading and Writing Assignments : Several specific reading assignments from references other than the text will be made. These reading assignments and their accompanying writing assignments are described on separate sheets.

    Grading : Exam grades will make up 75% of the final grade. Grading will be based primarily on the accuracy and completeness of answers, but the quality of writing techniques used will also influence grading. The grades on Reading and Writing assignments will make up 25% of the final grade. Grading of reports will be based primarily upon content, completeness, and the student's demonstrated understanding of the material. Organization, clarity, neatness, use of proper writing techniques, following instructions, and meeting deadlines will also be considered in the grading of reports. No quotes or simple paraphrasing are acceptable. More details about grading written assignments are provided on separate sheets.

    In unusual circumstances, a student's final grade may be increased or decreased by up to two points based on participation in class, timely completion of short assignments, and other subjective criteria such as cooperation and enthusiasm.

    Special help : Individual help is available during regular office hours and at any other time of mutual agreement.

    Office hours : DX307 Phone: 543-6488 (office) E-mail: [email protected]

    Academic honesty : The university's policy on academic honesty as published in the university catalog and the Student Handbook is in effect at all times for all matters related to this course.

    Return to Top of Page Schedule for Biology of Human Aging

    Instructor : Dr. Augustine DiGiovanna, Professor of Biology

    Office : DX307 Phone: 543-6488 555-5555 (home) E-mail: [email protected]

    Text : Human Aging: Biological Perspectives, by A. G. DiGiovanna, McGraw-Hill, Inc. (2000)

    This schedule is subject to change as deemed desirable by the instructor as circumstances warrant. Changes will be announced in class. Students are responsible for knowing of such changes whether or not they attend class.


    Watch the video: Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Development default (May 2022).